History of Mountaineering
Philippine Mountains
Environmental Awareness
Climb Ethics
Climb Organization
Climb Preparation
  Physical and Mental Preparation
  Gears and Equipment
  Meal Planning
  Backpack Loading
Climb Proper
  Trail Movement
  Camp Management
Other Mountaineering Knowledge and Skills
  Land Navigation
  Rock Climbing
  High Altitude Climbing
Prevention, First Aid and Emergency Care
  Sequence of actions for adult Basic Life Support
Group Scribe's Report Form
Gear and Equipment Checklist
Physical Fitness Assessment Form
Sample BMC Final Exam
Sample First Aid Final Exam

AMCI Basic Mountaineering Course (BMC) 2002

Climb Ethics

One of the common reasons we share for climbing mountains is our desire to be close to nature. The beauty of wild places frequently becomes their undoing as they attract visitors--leaving the landscape touched by human hands and eventually less than wild. As mountaineers travelling in the wilderness, the privileges we enjoy in the mountains bring the responsibility to help preserve the environment we love for present and future generations.

Climb Ethics or code of conduct, is the observance of desirable or proper behavior characterized by respect, concern and consideration for fellow climbers, the environment and the community.

Mountaineers' Creed

Take nothing but pictures,

Leave nothing but footprints,

Kill nothing but time.


1. Before we climb...

Pre-climb meeting


Proper Climb Anticipation

In a local community

Local cultural sensitivity. Learn about the community beforehand and keep in mind that we are visitors to their area. This would help us inderstand and respect the people's culture.

  1. Respect what is sacred to them, that is:
    • places of worship
    • burial sites
    • spiritual leaders and elders
    • sacred objects/articles
  2. Be conscious of your behaviour, as it may be offensive to their traditions and practices, such as:
    • manner of clothing
    • festivities
    • local practices, e.g., sleeping time
  3. Make a courtesy call to the local officials.

Local Economy

We must refrain from disrupting normal trade, thus, creating an imbalance in a community's economy.

  1. Plan carefully. Know and use available transportation and schedules between transit points and destinations. This way, we avoid the following:
    • arranging for special transportation services which may disrupt local schedules
    • paying more than what is standard and/or distort transportation rates
  2. Determine beforehand or consult local officials for the standard rates for professional services such as guide and porter fees. Paying extra or "tipping" is discouraged.
  3. Give only tokens fo appreciation so that giving of material things will not be misunderstood as an exchange for favors.
  4. Purchase souvenir items and other essentials only from established stores. Buying personal belongings of locals is discouraged.
  5. Giving away money or spare food is discouraged since this may instigate begging.

2. During a climb...

We climb mountains to appreciate nature at its best. To ensure the enjoyment of nature, we should exert efforts to preserve that which we want to appreciate. We should observe and plan proper climb procedures to achieve Low-Impact Mountaineering (LIM) and proper garbage disposal.

Low Impact Mountaineering (LIM)

-mountaineering with the least impact on the environment.

Low-impact mountaineering can be implemented regardless of the number of climbers as long as everyone is fully conscious of the fragile balance of nature and the importance of leaving the mountain in its original state as much as possible.

Some low-impact practices are as follows:

  1. Use existing trails and trail signs to minimize cutting of flora and displacement of natural settings.
  2. Use traditional campsites as much as possible and refrain from digging ditches.
  3. Do not vandalize and deface the beauty of nature, e.g., writing on rock walls, etching on trees.
  4. Build fire only on emergency situations.
  5. Smoking along the trail is a fire hazard, thus strictly prohibited.
  6. Minimize noise pollution as it disrupts the natural rhythm of the wildlife.
  7. Practice proper waste management. What you bring up, you must bring down.
  8. Even biodegradable soaps pollute streams. Practice washing without soap. If such is necessary, do so at least three (3) meters away from the water source.
  9. Wear lightweight sandals around the camp to reduce your impact on vegetation.

Interaction with fellow mountaineers

In the spirit of sportsmanship and camaraderie, we should establish and strengthen our ties with our fellow mountaineers by behaving with propriety.

  1. Each member of the club is equal regardless of gender, sexual orientation, creed, age and race. Respect for individual rights should be observed at all times.
  2. Greet fellow mountaineers or local folk that you meet along the trail.
    • Offer your hand for a handshake
    • Introduce yourself
    • State the name of your club

3. After the climb...

Post-climb meeting

  1. It's a learning experience
  2. Speak-out
  3. Nobody's perfect
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