History of Mountaineering
Philippine Mountains
Environmental Awareness
Climb Ethics
Climb Organization
Climb Preparation
 ¤ Physical and Mental Preparation
 ¤ Gears and Equipment
 ¤ Meal Planning
 ¤ Backpack Loading
Climb Proper
 ¤ Trail Movement
 ¤ Camp Management
Other Mountaineering Knowledge and Skills
 ¤ Land Navigation
 ¤ Ropemanship
 ¤ Rock Climbing
 ¤ High Altitude Climbing
Prevention, First Aid and Emergency Care
 ¤ Sequence of actions for adult Basic Life Support
Group Scribe's Report Form
Gear and Equipment Checklist
Physical Fitness Assessment Form
Sample BMC Final Exam
Sample First Aid Final Exam

AMCI Basic Mountaineering Course (BMC) 2002

Prevention, First Aid and Emergency Care

What should we do if . . .?

The prevention of injuries in mountaineering involves assuring a reasonable match between the performance of the climber and the demands of the environment. Advance preparations prevent injury or assure a rapid and effective response when an injury does occur.

  • drink lots of water—do not rely on thirst sensation
  • wear light-colored clothing; skirted hat
  • do not hike when temperature is at its hottest
  • profuse sweating
  • thirst
  • headache
  • nausea
  • pale skin
  • cool or slightly cold skin
  • slightly elevated oral temperature
  • rest victim in a cool area
  • give victim sips of water, electrolytic/salty fluids
  • stop victim’s activity until symptoms are gone
  • stopped sweating
  • hot skin
  • core body temperature of 105 or higher
  • weakness
  • headache
  • irrational, confused or combative behavior

decrease victim’s body temperature immediately:

  • immerse in tepid (not cold) water—or cover with water-soaked clothes
  • fan to promote evaporation
  • massage limbs vigorously to promote circulation
  • drink plenty pf fluids—more than what is needed to slake thirst
  • eat sufficient food to maintain energy levels
  • avoid alcohol and caffeine as they tend to dehydrate the body and interfere with the respiratory drive
  • ascend to altitude in stages, allowing body to acclimate
  • fitful sleep
  • loss of appetite
  • persistent headache, particularly when lying down
  • weakness, dull pain in muscles
  • fast, bounding pulse
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • dizziness
  • shortness of breath
  • puffy upper eyelids, face, hands
  • decreased, darker urine
  • breathe deeply and regularly through pursed lips
  • if dizziness or nausea develops, stop rapid breathing
  • slow down travel pace or rest
  • increase fluid intake
  • mild exercise
  • if symptoms persist, descend
  • stay dry
  • dress in layers that can be removed to prevent sweating and added to hold in heat
  • Sensation of chilliness, numb skin, shivering, and loss of coordination and strength in the hands
  • It progresses to more severe shivering and loss of overall muscular coordination. Victims begin to stumble and fall frequently. Hands become numb, useless claws. Thought and speech slow to a crawl.
  • put on dry clothing or add more insulation
  • rewarm body by applying external heat: put victim and warm rescuer together inside a sleeping bag
  • give warm liquids to conscious victim
  • wear pants, long-sleeved shirts, skirted hats
  • wear sunscreen lotions; re-apply when needed
  • wear properly-fitting boots and socks
  • wear a thin pair of socks under a thicker layer
  • avoid wearing stiff boots
  • on long, steady downhills, lace boots extra tight
  • cover hot spots with band-aid/tape
  • do not open blisters unless absolutely necessary
  • wash and dress opened blisters
  • avoid clothing that cut into skin e.g. too-tight underwear, garterized waistband
  • apply burn ointment
  • put dressing, if applicable


Lightning most often strikes tall, isolated objects—a peak, a rocky spire, a single tree in a meadow—or a person standing in an open area. I f a thunderstorm threatens, get off the summits and ridges. If a dense forest is nearby, plunge in and relax—you’re safe, Stay away from isolated trees and clumps of trees; they can act as lightning rods. If you are caught in the open with nowhere to hide, set metal objects such as tent poles and tripods aside and move severl hundred yards away. Kneel down on your pack and put your hands on your knees. The idea is to reduce your height to the extent possible to avoid acting as lightning rod, yet to minimize your contact with the ground so that the ground current set up by a lightning strike has the smallest possible avenue to enter your body.

A person hit ny lightning frequently stops breathing. I anndition, the victim’s heart may stop beating, Be prepared to start AR or CPR.

Mosquitoes & Other Insects

Mosquitoes are attracted by the carbon dioxide that people give off. Insect repellents generally work by masking that odor

Under the best of circumstances, repellents provide only partial protection. A much better solution is to wear pants and a loose-fitting, long-sleeved shirt made of a tightly woven material through which mosquitoes cannot bite

Mosquitoes operate within a limited range of temperatures. In the high mountains, they usually go to bed at sunset. In the warm lowlands, they may be scarce during the day and active all night. Knowing the local mosquitoes’ habits can help you avoid them. All mosquitoes like wet, marshy areas and dislike wind. If you have the choice, make your lunch stops on the ridge crests and passes, and place your camp on a dry, breezy knoll well away from lush meadows.


Medicines are powerful chemicals. Along with their benefits, they also have potential harm. So the more you know about medicines and how to use them safely, the more you can benefit from them. Some common directions for use and their common meanings are listed:

  • Six hourly or eight hourly – means taking the medicine at the stated intervals
  • Three times daily – means taking the medicine in the morning, noon and at night
  • Take after food – means taking the medicine during or immediately after a meal
  • Take before food – means taking the medicine between two hours after the last meal and one hour before the next meal

After treatment, medicines that have been left unused should be discarded when

  • they have reached the date of expiry
  • they have undergone physical or chemical changes
  • they are unlabeled or unidentifiable

Do not allow the use of the medicine by others unless instructed by a doctor.

"An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure."

gas pain    
cough and cold    
muscle pain    


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